Ken Hulme

Location:

Location: Fort Myers, FL
Country: US

My Latest Followers:

tednms Big Bubba oldmdpicker railbike1 Ballad Gal lal DulciChick chris hornby Don Grundy jcurtis55 Laurel K Scott Billy T Kevin R. hugssandi Repp Kusani Peggy M marie JGD Salt Springs Kandee Sheryl St. Clare Charles Thomas Annie Deeley Cat Brown Volha Anne Bowman Lexie R Oakley Kathy Jedrzejewicz Stephen Addison Sandi McHugh jeffrey charles foster John W. McKinstry Bob Mark Runge Estes George Bert Bennett Stewart McCormick Linda2 James Phillips Lois Sprengnether Keel Helen Seiler Patricia Delich Patty from Virginia Jeff David E.Hall David Bennett Richard Streib Deborah Hinz Rick Probst

Stats

youtube videos: 2
images: 41
videos: 2
audio tracks: 3

A retired Technical Writer, I live aboard a 26 ft sailboat (called ManCave)  in Fort Myers, Florida.  I'm a working Personal Chef and writer (these days) of historical fiction and general non-fiction.  

Latest Activity

  All
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 2 hours ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Feedback on new instrument":
"Those look like good quality tuners, whether original or not.  It's true Bob like his wooden tuning pegs, but that doesn't mean he didn't fit these pegs to..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 days ago • comments: 14
Posted a new Comment on 5 string strings and tuning:
"Bravo!   Good luck on your dulcimer journey.  If there's anything else we can help with, do not hesitate to ask."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 days ago • comments: 14
Posted a new Comment on 5 string strings and tuning:
"Dewey -- I belong to the "if it ain't broke don't fix it" school of added frets.  That dulcimer, as it stands, is perfectly playable and does not need..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 5 days ago • comments: 1
Posted a new Comment on Looking at the Fretboard When Playing:
"I know some world-class dulcimer players and world-class finger-stylist guitarists who still look at the strings as they fret them.  The difference is that..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 5 days ago • comments: 14
Posted a new Comment on 5 string strings and tuning:
"The thing to remember about DAd and the 5 string variations along with the Lazenby dulcimer is that it does NOT have the 6+ fret so common on the modern..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 5 days ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Researching a dulcimer I think it is a Bob Lazenby":
"Dewey -- If you join  the Beginners Group as Strumelia suggests  (you have to join the Group to see more than a question or two, and to create posts), one of..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 6 days ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Researching a dulcimer I think it is a Bob Lazenby":
"Beautiful instrument.  I'll let others speak to the wood.The 5 strings are arranged as two pairs and a single.  The pair closest to you are the Melody..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • one week ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Strings":
"Well,  I just tested 8 dulcimers of various VSLs and tunings, and I can say YES -- at the very end of the sustain, the needle wiggles a little to either side..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 2 weeks ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "What's fer dinner?":
"I make soup at least once a week.  Often something involving Butternut Squash.  A week or so back it was Butternut & Cremini Mushroom; fabulous...."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 2 weeks ago • comments: 24
Posted a new Comment on Neck width:
"Yes, I know what bore oil is.  Bagpipe players use it also.  "
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 2 weeks ago • comments: 24
Posted a new Comment on Neck width:
"Nice job on that scroll!  I personally use Tung oil on everything -- fretboard and body.  As long as it's an oil that hardens, it should be fine on the..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 2 weeks ago • comments: 15
Posted a new Comment on A question concerning extra frets on diatonic dulcimer:
"I agree 100% with my friend John Knopf.  Except I don't think of the diatonic fretboard as a limitation, but rather as a challenge.  There are several..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 2 weeks ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Choosing Your String Gauge":
"Traildad --  exactly right -- string gauges calculators give you as usable string gauges String gauges are  like many, many things "dulcimer", there is no..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 2 weeks ago • comments: 15
Posted a new Comment on A question concerning extra frets on diatonic dulcimer:
"There's a very specific location -- to the nearest 1 mm or less -- where pressing between two frets will give you the chromatic note in between the diatonic..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 3 weeks ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Choosing Your String Gauge":
"How do I choose strings for my instruments?  VSL, the open tuning I want to use, and years of experimenting and experience.  That's what the builder of your..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 3 weeks ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Non-Metal Fret Material":
"I/ve built a couple "scheitholt" type instruments with split bamboo frets.  Softer sound than metal frets, and quieter too."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 3 weeks ago • comments: 24
Posted a new Comment on Neck width:
"I make my scroll heads without the spiral carving, and admire those who have the right tools and skills.  I've looked at trying it myself. Here's a couple..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 3 weeks ago • comments: 24
Posted a new Comment on Neck width:
"You're right to continue on building the instrument the way the kit maker intended.  Enjoy this part of the journey and see where it leads you.If you really..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 3 weeks ago • comments: 24
Posted a new Comment on Neck width:
"Definite guitar influence.  Few dulcimer builders use such an X brace system, especially on the top, which already has a massive brace from head to tail --..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "The Positive Thread...":
"Welcome home, old friend!"
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Introduce Yourself!":
"Welcome Wink!"
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 24
Posted a new Comment on Neck width:
"We'll want to see photos as your build progresses, of course .  Saskatchewan, eh?  That a nice place.  Or was 30 years ago when I visited Saskatoon.  Nice..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 4
Posted a new Comment on An unusual wood:
"I love working with Catalpa, but as you say, it is so grain it takes extra care to get a good finish.  A couple years back I made a replica of a mid-1860s..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 24
Posted a new Comment on Neck width:
"Howdy @banjolele! Dulcimer fretboards (not necks, necks stick out beyond the body) vary from just a hair under 1" on some traditional dulcemores to nearly..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 9
Posted a new Comment on Sawn-Frame Dulcemore:
"Ocean-Daughter -- I'll see if I can get it posted here; otherwise I can email you a PDF."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 9
Posted a new Comment on Sawn-Frame Dulcemore:
"I've got one in-progress for you, Robin.  Based on the only pix in L.Allen Smith's Catalogue of Pre-Revival Dulcimers of instruments from Ohio.  Those were..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 9
Posted a new Comment on Sawn-Frame Dulcemore:
"I can send you a design sketch of the shape easily enough.   The sawn frame makes it very easy to create complicated shapes like the Holly Leaf or a Fiddle..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "What Are You Working On?":
"Beautiful job Kusani!"
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 9
Posted a new Comment on Sawn-Frame Dulcemore:
"And... the finished product:"
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 9
Posted a new Comment on Sawn-Frame Dulcemore:
"Other build photos"
Ken Hulme
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • 4 weeks ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Tell us about your VERY FIRST dulcimer":
"Sure ocean-daughter, ask away. Best to do it in another thread, not this one.  If you Join the Dulcimer Building Group, I have a thread there called..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • one month ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "How is the COVID-19 coronavirus affecting you?":
"Hi Mary: I'm about 400 miles south of you in Fort Myers.  Our county sucks at getting out the vaccine(s).  I'm trying to get it through our local VA, and..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • one month ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "Tell us about your VERY FIRST dulcimer":
"Welcome ocean-daughter.  Bud & Donna were my intro to the dulcimer too; over 40 years ago.  I too built a kit and have gone from there.  Sounds like..."
Ken Hulme
@ken-hulme • one month ago • comments: 0
Posted a response to "How to get adhesive residue off a fretboard?":
"One of those white  "kitchen erasers" should remove the residue easily."

Latest Group Discussions

  All
Ken Hulme

Sawn-Frame Dulcemore


Somewhere here awhile back, we had a discussion about making dulcimers...
@Ken Hulme 5 months ago - Comments: 9
Ken Hulme

Another "Not A Dulcimer" Build


In collaboration with a Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland  professor of...
@Ken Hulme last year - Comments: 6
Ken Hulme

Unison and Bagpipe Tunings


You may find these two tunings more useful for your "no 6+ fret"...
@Ken Hulme 2 years ago - Comments: 5
Ken Hulme

NC Holly Leaf Pattern circa 1860s


Here's my almost finished latest build.  This is based on the...
@Ken Hulme 2 years ago - Comments: 9
Ken Hulme

Berea Traditional Dulcimer Gathering!! 2019


A great time was had by all at the first annual Berea Traditional...
@Ken Hulme 2 years ago - Comments: 10
Ken Hulme

Hindman in Exile Gathering


  We were NOT about to let the cancellation of the Hindman Homecoming...
@Ken Hulme 3 years ago - Comments: 7
Ken Hulme

Get Noterized! (article)


For those who might be interested I've posted my Noter & Drone...
@Ken Hulme 10 years ago - Comments: 0
Ken Hulme

Berea Traditional Dulcimer Gathering


You've read about our adventures in the posts here called Hindman in...
@Ken Hulme 3 years ago - Comments: 14
Ken Hulme

New Body


Here's a new body I made for a student's cardboard dulcimer.  Butternut...
@Ken Hulme 3 years ago - Comments: 7
Ken Hulme

Mercer Museum Zither Replica


So... awhile back I was looking at pix of 'transitional' dulcimers' on...
@Ken Hulme 3 years ago - Comments: 48
Ken Hulme

Latest JI Calculator?


(repost because I got silly and hit the wrong button.  Got your...
@Ken Hulme 6 years ago - Comments: 22
Ken Hulme

First Build in Years....


Awhile back I got the urge to build a dulcimer -- first time in years....
@Ken Hulme 5 years ago - Comments: 13
Ken Hulme

Home-Made Peg Shaper


I have only built a couple instruments with wooden pegs because...
@Ken Hulme 3 years ago - Comments: 4
Ken Hulme

New Wood Seller with Gorgeous Wood


Early this month, I received a blind e-mail from a pre-cut wood seller...
@Ken Hulme 4 years ago - Comments: 2
Ken Hulme

Size of Music Wire?


What number of "music wire" are you buying to make strings the...
@Ken Hulme 6 years ago - Comments: 5
Ken Hulme

Sherrie's Broken Dulcimer


On the Care & Maintenance Wall, Sherrie H wrote: I purchased a...
@Ken Hulme 6 years ago - Comments: 8
Ken Hulme

Tribute Album Announcement


Got this from the Compass Records website. To be released in...
@Ken Hulme 7 years ago - Comments: 6
Ken Hulme

Effects of Fretboard Arches


Anyone interested in the effects of various kinds and sizes of arches...
@Ken Hulme 8 years ago - Comments: 0
Ken Hulme

Beginner Instrument?


by Roger Goode Hi all.. I am starting the methodical process of...
@Ken Hulme 8 years ago - Comments: 5
Ken Hulme

O, I'm A Good Old Rebel


...well, not me personally, although I do live in The South. This tune...
@Ken Hulme 8 years ago - Comments: 11

Latest Audio

  All
Old Joe Clark

Old Joe Clark


@Ken Hulme
2 years ago - Comments: 3
Lay the Bent To The Bonnie Broom

Lay the Bent To The Bonnie Broom


@Ken Hulme
2 years ago - Comments: 2
Fretted Zither Sample -- Amazing Grace

Fretted Zither Sample --...


@Ken Hulme
3 years ago - Comments: 3

Latest Videos

  All
Hindman Exiles Playing Together

Hindman Exiles Playing Together


@Ken Hulme
3 years ago - Comments: 11
RosintheBeau

RosintheBeau


@Ken Hulme
10 years ago - Comments: 12
BanksoftheBann

BanksoftheBann


@Ken Hulme
10 years ago - Comments: 12

Latest Photos

  All
final3.JPG
SmHolly2 tuning head.JPG
Sanding Sealer.JPG
SawnFrame 3.JPG
SawnFrame 2.JPG
SawnFrame 1.JPG
Dia-chromatic fretboard.jpg
Fake Quill.jpg
Tail.JPG
Strung.JPG
Head.JPG
Front.JPG
Front left.JPG
Back.JPG
Lois 2.JPG
Lois 1.JPG
Cdbd Frame.JPG
Cologne Lyre.jpg

Latest Forum Discussions

  All

Hughes Mountain Dulcimers

Posted: Monday July 27 2020, 10:38 PM
By: @Ken Hulme

Berea 2020 Traditional Gathering...

Posted: Thursday January 16 2020, 4:44 PM
By: @Robin Thompson

Rebec

Posted: Saturday December 21 2019, 12:31 PM
By: @Hobbyhorse

Group Contents Re-ordered???

Posted: Sunday October 27 2019, 7:08 PM
By: @Strumelia

McSpadden --- wax

Posted: Thursday September 19 2019, 1:44 PM
By: @Ken Hulme

Great Lyric/Chord Find

Posted: Monday August 5 2019, 6:20 PM
By: @Lois Sprengnether Keel

Visit With Kusani

Posted: Saturday May 25 2019, 9:23 PM
By: @hugssandi

Berea Gathering Attendees

Posted: Thursday May 23 2019, 6:23 PM
By: @Ken Longfield

Berea Traditional Dulcimer Gathering Update

Posted: Tuesday April 16 2019, 6:47 AM
By: @Dan

Dulcimer Players News 1975-2012 Searchable...

Posted: Sunday December 2 2018, 6:25 PM
By: @Ken Hulme

Oberflacht Lyre Finished

Posted: Thursday January 18 2018, 12:37 PM
By: @IRENE

Capo? False Nuts?

Posted: Tuesday November 28 2017, 8:55 AM
By: @Ken Hulme

Oberflacht Lyre started

Posted: Thursday October 26 2017, 3:39 PM
By: @Ken Hulme

Recognize this?

Posted: Saturday August 12 2017, 9:21 AM
By: @Ken Hulme

Happy Anniversary!!

Posted: Saturday July 8 2017, 9:25 AM
By: @Ken Longfield

Stand-Up Stands

Posted: Thursday March 16 2017, 8:51 AM
By: @Ken Hulme

Rabel & Gusli

Posted: Thursday August 11 2016, 2:50 PM
By: @Strumelia

Dr. Ralph Stanley Passes

Posted: Friday June 24 2016, 12:25 PM
By: @Dusty Turtle

Grace Notes

Posted: Friday March 4 2016, 4:54 AM
By: @Dusty Turtle

I Just Got A Dulcimer, Now What? (Article)

Posted: Wednesday August 19 2015, 10:05 PM
By: @Ken Hulme

New Noters Coming

Posted: Wednesday August 19 2015, 9:44 AM
By: @Ken Hulme

Get Noterized! (article)

Posted: Thursday June 25 2015, 10:56 AM
By: @Ken Hulme

Florida Old Time Music Championship

Posted: Monday April 27 2015, 11:03 AM
By: @Ken Hulme

Reading DA AD Tab

Posted: Sunday September 28 2014, 5:53 PM
By: @Steve Smith

American Folk Song Collection

Posted: Wednesday September 24 2014, 10:46 PM
By: @Ken Longfield

Dulcimer Challenge

Posted: Thursday February 6 2014, 5:58 PM
By: @John Henry

This Little Piggy (Sow model by Bobby...

Posted: Tuesday April 9 2013, 12:55 AM
By: @Strumelia

Beginner? Intermediate? Expert?

Posted: Thursday March 21 2013, 10:01 PM
By: @Kristi Keller

He's baaaackkk!

Posted: Friday October 19 2012, 1:08 PM
By: @john p

Howie Mitchell Dulcimer Building Book and...

Posted: Friday April 13 2012, 1:52 PM
By: @Ken Hulme

Comments

Lois Sprengnether Keel
02/23/19 11:33:45AM @lois-sprengnether-keel:

Ken, somehow I don't think of using an "@" when replying, but my two comments were especially for you. 

In case you don't drift back to the "spooky, mournful, lonesome" discussion, I said:

     WOW!  I just went to YouTube and caught Nic Jones's fingerstyle guitar version.  Oh Ken, that's one heck of a rockin' Child's ballad.  I know for a fact they plan to bring the theme of Child's Ballads back next year and I was dreading a real downer of an evening.  The librarian in me will research the heck out of this song, but I'd thank ye kindly for any arrangement, or whatever you might be willing to send my way.  I know I could probably manage it on guitar, but I'd love to do it on the dulcimer.

     Bit of a postscript here.  I had heard of the title "Little Musgrave", but that's about it.  This is one wicked little song.  Yes, it ends as unhappily as Child Ballads have a nasty tendency to do (are there any happy ones?), but the action is far from slow and I think our Strumelia would agree this one ought to hold the audience's interest.  I'll prowl the verses to get it as lean as possible. 

Since I wrote that I've prowled a bit and have a melody and think Nic Jones kept the verse "as lean as possible."  I know it also became the probably better known "Matty Groves", but I won't have time to get too detailed in my intro since the song is so long.  I would be very interested in whatever you may care to share about "Little Musgrave."  If it's easier, right now I'm hoping to attend the Berea event (subject to change if work conflicts).


Ken Longfield
09/03/18 06:22:24PM @ken-longfield:

Ken, I received this message today and replied with a general comment about Berea College probably being ADA compliant.

09/03/18 05:31:24PM  @Sbarnett524 :

Would this event and housing be ADA accessible as per wheelchair use?

I also mentioned that some field trips might not be. Do you know anymore?

Ken

"The dulcimer sings a sweet song."


Jim Phillips
06/01/18 10:21:53PM @jim-at-gcreek:

Ken,

i have used quite a bit of sassafras for soundboards.  Wood is available here in Ohio.  Sassafras also resembles chestnut.  Most of sassafras wood I have used has a slight olive hue when finished.  Usually I combine sassafras soundboard with a walnut body.  This combination has been very popular.

 

JimP


Jim Phillips
06/01/18 09:40:35PM @jim-at-gcreek:

Ken,

i do not have any Catalpa.

i do have several nice pieces of "Wenge" (Africa) that are cut to proper

size for dulcimer fretboard overlays.  Provides a slicker surface for fingering

and material's hardness reduces pick marking.  (Kind of a replacement for ebony).  I can provide size of these overlay blanks, if anyone is interested.

JimP


marg
09/08/17 10:42:40PM @marg:

Worry about you & all of Fla. Could you move your boat & go to Ala or someplace? Be safe & let us know how you are.

 


marg
09/07/17 07:39:57PM @marg:

Do you have plans for yourself & your boat? Let us know how you are & how you make out after the hurricane comes through


marg
09/05/17 12:31:11AM @marg:

Not knowing where this next hurricane is going, along the coast or right up the middle - do be safe & let us know how you make out if it comes your way.


marg
06/28/17 06:27:05PM @marg:

Well ' I just start adding '3' to my DAd tabs' & some songs worked out better than others. Mostly I ran into trouble when trying to figure the middle string, even with it already an A - I started thinking maybe I should just keep it as is & pick it. 

Do you think something like this could be a discussion some of the members could used - learning how to tab from/to DAd to/from DAA & the other way around?


marg
06/28/17 12:38:23PM @marg:

ken,

Since I have the Carrell dulcimer tuned to DAA but most of my tabs are in DAdd, what is the best site to find many DAA tabs or should I just start adding '3' to my DAd tabs? I get a little confused (trying to update) when a DAd tab has some #'s on the middle string.

thanks


hugssandi
05/11/17 09:45:31AM @hugssandi:

YOUR PICTURES ARE AMAZING!  They make me 1.) Hungry, 2.) Want to live a FULL day, and 3.)  Visit Florida!!!!!


Laurel K Scott
03/01/17 02:02:39PM @laurel-k-scott:

Thank you, Ken --  I already know it's currently strung left handed because of the position of the bass string. What I *meant* to ask was whether the wrapping on the tuning pegs looks correct in that photo.

My inclination would be to wrap the strings in either ascending or descending order from left to right, but as you can tell, I have no knowledge of stringed instruments! This dulcimer came to me with the bass string (which is currently on the bottom rather than the top) strung on the lowest peg, the middle string strung on the highest peg and the end melody string (this is only a 3-stringer) wrapped on the middle peg. All are wrapped overhand rather than underhand.


Sheryl St. Clare
04/19/16 12:03:19PM @sheryl-st-clare:

Hi Ken, 

Your document  I Just Got A Dulcimer, Now What??? -- A Beginner’s Guide -- by Ken Hulme shows a John Stockard adjustable dulcimer stand. I searched for it on the "Interweb" eyeroll  but can't find it anywhere. 

 

I had a class with Joe Collins Saturday. He used one, and I really liked the setup better than the laptop desk I currently play my dulcimer on, which allows me to play while standing. 

 

Can you point me in a direction where I might find this stand?

 

Thanks,

Sheryl


Sheryl St. Clare
01/25/16 06:47:33PM @sheryl-st-clare:

Ken, I recently picked up a BD built by Ken Bloom. I have restrung it, and I am trying to tune it. I recall you had a link to a piano tune site, but can't find the discussion. Please let me know what that site was. 

Sheryl St. Clare

 


Salt Springs
01/17/16 09:28:26AM @salt-springs:

Mancave fared OK during last nights nasty weather, I presume?


Annie Deeley
09/29/15 08:35:49PM @annie-deeley:

Hi again, Ken. Thanks again, I just realized that the string guages you listed did say the G's would be 15's. The penny finally dropped, duh. Found some 15's in a drawer, just haven't worked up the courage t switch 'em yet...

I am a writer, too, but a poet.


marg
08/01/15 04:50:33PM @marg:

Seems attached files don't get posted with the comments. The image was just the site you sent for the banjo pegs, just checking that these are the ones I need to order. Non of the guitar stores carry anything like banjo pegs or buttons.

marg.


marg
08/01/15 04:45:40PM @marg:

Ken,

       Since you have gotten some knobs before, many years ago  -  are we sure these are the right ones to fit the red dulcimer I have?    I  would need 4 to replace all now, should I also have 4 as a back up? Elderly also makes banjo tuner buttons, are they the same or just go with the ones you sent the site for?

 

Thanks for your help, see photos

marg.

ps: Thinking, I should just go with your site, just tell me they seem right or the ones you would order. I can not delete the attached file of the one from elderly. Is there a way to delete files once they're attached? No worries.

 


banjo pegs.jpg
banjo pegs.jpg  •  81KB

1 banjo peg.jpg
1 banjo peg.jpg  •  65KB

Ken Longfield
06/10/15 08:51:38PM @ken-longfield:

Hi Ken. Retirement is treating me well. How about you. You working on another book? I enjoyed the first one. I'm working on rebuilding my workshop after a water leak back in March. Haven't had much time with all the yard work and some work at our daughter's house.


Cecilia Schermaul
05/31/15 10:47:06PM @cecilia-schermaul:

Hello to you Ken, Celia here... After the remarks on my dulcimer last year I put it away until I could see a Luthier. The Luthier lowered the frets and told me everything was fine. Started back on the dulcimer around Oct. 2014.

I am back at beginner lessons and improving all the time but, a long way to go. One song I love to play is Carolina Waltz. Thank you for the encourgement.

All the Best to you and yours, Celia S.Grin.gif


Strumelia
02/25/15 10:11:28PM @strumelia:

Ken i posted the answer to your blog image problem, but you'll need to 'approve' it before it appears.